|Opinion ( 2 )|
The first known example of an opinion poll was a tallies of voter preferences reported by the Raleigh Star and North Carolina State Gazette and the Wilmington American Watchman and Delaware Advertiser prior to the 1824 presidential election, showing Andrew Jackson leading John Quincy Adams by 335 votes to 169 in the contest for the United States Presidency. Since Jackson won the popular vote in that state and the whole country, such straw votes gradually became more popular, but they remained local, usually citywide phenomena. In 1916, The Literary Digest embarked on a national survey (partly as a circulation-raising exercise) and correctly predicted Woodrow Wilson's election as president. Mailing out millions of postcards and simply counting the returns, The Literary Digest correctly predicted the victories of Warren Harding in 1920, Calvin Coolidge in 1924, Herbert Hoover in 1928, and Franklin Roosevelt in 1932.
|Citizen survey ( 1 )|
A citizen survey is a kind of opinion poll which typically asks the residents of a specific jurisdiction for their perspectives on local issues, such as the quality of life in the community, their level of satisfaction with local government, or their political leanings. Such a survey can be conducted by mail, telephone, Internet, or in person.
Citizen surveys were advanced by Harry Hatry of the Urban Institute, who believed resident opinions to be as necessary to the actions of local government managers and elected officials as customer surveys are to business executives. Local government officials use the data from citizen surveys to assist them in allocating resources for maximum community benefit and forming strategic plans for community programs and policies. Many private firms and universities also conduct their own citizen surveys for similar purposes.
In 1991, the International City and County Manager's Association (ICMA) published a book by Thomas Miller and Michelle Miller Kobayashi titled Citizen Surveys: How To Do Them, How To Use Them, and What They Mean, that directed local government officials in the basic methods for conducting citizen surveys. The book was revised and republished in 2000. In 2001, ICMA partnered with Miller and Kobayashi's organization National Research Center, Inc., to bring The National Citizen Survey, a low-cost survey service, to local governments. National Research Center, Inc. maintains a database of over 500 jurisdictions representing more than 40 million Americans, allowing local governments to compare their cities' results with similar communities nearby or across the nation.
|Push poll ( 0 )|
A push poll is an interactive marketing technique, most commonly employed during political campaigning, in which an individual or organization attempts to manipulate or alter prospective voters' views under the guise of conducting an opinion poll. Large numbers of voters are contacted with little effort made to actually collect and analyze voters' response data. Instead, the push poll is a form of telemarketing-based propaganda and rumor mongering, masquerading as an opinion poll. Push polls may rely on innuendo, or information gleaned from opposition research on the political opponent of the interests behind the poll.
Push polls are generally viewed as a form of negative campaigning. Indeed, the term is commonly (and confusingly) used in a broader sense to refer to legitimate polls that aim to test negative political messages. Future usage of the term will determine whether the strict or broad definition becomes the most favored definition. However, in all such polls, the pollster asks leading questions or suggestive questions that "push" the interviewee towards adopting an unfavourable response towards the political candidate in question.
|Keypad polling ( 1 )|
One example of this technology comprises a number of hand held keypads (similar to TV remote controls) which communicate using radio frequencies with a base station. This base station is connected to a laptop computer which in turn is linked to a VGA projector that displays onto a projection screen. Participants vote anonymously by selecting the number on their keypad that best represents their preference. The result of the group vote is displayed on the projection screen within seconds. The project team also works with clients to prepare suitable questionnaires and produce report documents that analyse voting results.
|Exit poll ( 0 )|
An election exit poll is a poll of voters taken immediately after they have exited the polling stations. A similar poll conducted before actual voters have voted is called an entrance poll. Pollsters – usually private companies working for newspapers or broadcasters – conduct exit polls to gain an early indication as to how an election has turned out, as in many elections the actual result may take hours or even months to count.